Asphalt Roofing Basics
Being a starter, strip by cutting the tabs off a shingle with a roofing knife. Then cut 6 inches off one end. Positioning the trimmed shingle on the roof with the cut edges overlapping the rake (edge) and eave (bottom by 1/2 to 3/4 inch. Nail the shingle on the roof with four galvanized roofing nails, positioned 3 to 4 inches from the eaves.
Cut the tabs off another shingle and put the full length on the roof. Butt it against the first shingle and nail it in place with galvanized roofing nails spaced 12 inches apart. Continue cutting and installing along the roof until you have installed the starter strip from one side to the other.
Put a shingle on the roof so that the lower edge overlaps the cutter apron at the eaves no more than 3/4 inch. Measure from the edge for the roof to the top of the shingle and snap a chalk line this distance from the edge along the entire roof. Do not use red chalk because red pigment will stain roofing material.
Apply the first shingle of the first course. Begin at the edge and start with a full shingle. Position the shingle to overhang the eaves and rake edges by 3/4 inches. Nail the shingle in place with four nails.
Once the first shingle is on, move to the first shingle of the second course. This helps align the shingles properly and means you do not have to move across the roof for every shingle. Cut 6 inches off the end of a shingle. Align the bottom edge of the shingle with the top of the cutouts in the first shingle. Nail it in place according to the manufacturer’s directions.
With 2 shingles in place, start the 3rd course. Cut 12 inches off the end of a shingle. Align the edge with the edge of the roof, and align the bottom with the top of the cutouts in the shingle below. Nail in place continue up the roof to the sixth course, trimming each shingle to be 6 inches narrower than the one below it. After the 6th course, you will apply a full length shingle along the edge of the roof.
Return the lower edge of the roof to reach the space next to the 1st shingle you installed. Butt a full-length shingle next to it and nail it in place.
Work your way up the roof, nailing a single full-length shingle next tot each of the shingles already in place. After you’ve completed the 6th course, nail a full-length shingle in place to start the seventh course. Measure and snap a chalk line across the top to make sure that the row is straight. Snap a line every seven rows so that you can correct any errors before they get too serious.
Continue working diagonally up and across the roof. All the shingles are full -length, except those shingles so that each is 6 inches narrower than the one below. When the rake shingle is only 6 inches wide, start the pattern over, applying a full shingle above it.
When you reach the far edge of the roof, trim the shingles. On a straight-edge roof, trim the shingles so that they they are just long enough to overlap the rake by no more than 3/4 inch. Having a hooked blade knife will make cutting easier.
Finish shingling all the way up to the ridge, adding flashing as needed. When you reach the top, trim the shingle flush with the ridge. When you shingle the other side of the ridge, overlap the shingle on the ridge and nail it in place. There are companies that provide pre-made ridge caps. Check to see if you can get them for the shingles you are installing.
Cut 12-inch-square hip caps from regular shingles. Then trim them further so that they taper at one end to 10 inches. Snap a chalk line parallel to the hip and 6 inches away from it on each side of the ridge. Attach each side of each cap with one roofing nail, 1 inch from the edge, just above the sealing tab. Overlap the caps by 1 inch.
When 2 hips meet, cut a 4-inch v out of the middle of a hip shingle. Nail in place and cover the nailheads with roofing cement. Shingle ridges as you would hips, working from each end toward the middle. At the midpoint of the ridge, butt the neighboring ridge caps. Cut 1 inch off the narrow end of the final cap shingle, and nail over the butted caps. Cover nailheads with roofing cement. Please feel free to stop by.