Homeowners can do their own roofing projects with some handy tools, a little knowledge, and a lot of hard work. A roof has many layers since it has to protect the entire house from the weather and temperatures.
The top layer is the roofing material. Most commonly it is the asphalt shingle roofing tile, because it is durable and easy to use even for do-it-yourselfers. Underneath is the deck, which is made of plywood. In locations of extreme heat there are typically reflective panels to offset the sun's heat and radiation and reduce the need for air conditioning. Next is the underlayment, which is basically a strong felt that protects against moisture. Underneath the felt layer are strips of aluminum that protect the edges from drips.
The main materials you will need to do roofing yourself are: bundles of asphalt shingles, hammer and nails or a nail gun, a box cutter, a ladder, and a shingle-ripping bar. A tarp would be handy on the ground below if you are teasing off old shingles. It would also be helpful to have a friend or two to help you hold the ladder steady or be on the roof with you to hold tools and to help out.
Maintenance roofing is important if you want to avoid larger, more expensive jobs later. If you notice black spots, damaged, loose, or missing shingles, then it's time to maintain your roof. It could be helpful to trim the trees near your roof to prevent some problems from occurring on your shingle, such as mold growing and destroying the material. If you have black streaks, you already have some mold problems brewing.
You should clean the infected shingles with a special cleaner (not bleach, it is corrosive) and install zinc
strips on the ridge for protection. If you have missing, old, or damaged shingles, you will have to go up there and replace them. All this takes is loosing the row above the damaged shingle and prying the damaged single off. Then replace it with a new shingle. Left ignored, damaged or missing shingles will result in a vulnerable roof. Leaks will occur and more shingles will get ruined, increasing the overall damage to your roof. The wind may lift off loose or improperly applied shingles, or the elements will damage them.
Cleaning a roof is another good do-it-yourself job, but it can be dangerous without shoes with good traction, a sturdy ladder, and a harness. You will need a water hose, a tri-sodium based cleaner, a broom, and plastic bags to cover windows, bushes, and anything else you do not want to wash. Make sure any leaks are patched up and the outside walls are covered with plastic before you are ready to wash your roof.